Most of the exam papers are available in English and Afrikaans
Pre- and post-session questionnaires were used to assess changes in student reported confidence in surgical skills and attitude towards virtual surgical skills training (Fig. 2). At baseline 40% of students ‘agreed’ or ‘strongly agreed with the statements “I feel confident in how to correctly use and handle instruments” and “I feel confident in my basic suturing capabilities” and 30% ‘agreed’ or ‘strongly agreed’ with the statement “I feel confident in tying a reef knot and slip knot”. Overall, 75% perceived an improvement in their confidence in instrument handling, 80% in cable knot tying, and 70% in suture tying. Following the session, the majority of students disagreed that virtual delivery of surgical skills training negatively impacted their view of live demonstrations, interaction with instructors or the level of supervision they received.
In modern societies, training reading skills is fundamental since poor-reading children are at high risk of struggling both at school and in life. Reading relies not only on oral language abilities but also on several executive functions. Considering their importance for literacy, training executive functions—particularly, attentional control has been suggested as a promising way of improving reading skills. For this reason, we developed a video game-based cognitive intervention aimed at improving several facets of executive functions. This game is composed of mini-games that apply gamified versions of standard clinical exercises linked through a game environment with action video game dynamics. Here, in a study involving 151 typically-reading children, we demonstrated that after this general-domain behavioral intervention reading abilities, as well as attentional and planning skills, were significantly improved. Our results showed that training attentional control can translate into better reading efficiency, maintained at a follow-up test 6 months later.
The overall rating for the virtual surgical skills session was 8.85 (±1.19) out of a scale from 0 to 10 (10 being most satisfied). Questions regarding the delivery of teaching via the virtual platform are summarised in Fig. 3. All students were ‘satisfied’ or ‘very satisfied with the breadth and depth of the content covered and the subject knowledge and enthusiasm of the instructors, as well as their ability to ask questions via the platform. All students were ‘satisfied’ or ‘very satisfied with the balance of different teaching methods used (lecture, video, breakout room), the lecture content, the video demonstrations, and all the practical skills sessions. One student was ‘dissatisfied’ with the surgical equipment provided. Post-session student feedback themes
Thematic analysis of open-ended questions regarding student feedback on what went well was examined and themes of practicals in breakout rooms, supervision, and individualized feedback emerged.
“Most enjoyable session of the course so far. I liked that we had instructors with us in the breakout rooms to ask about any steps we were unsure about. Also, the demonstration videos beforehand were very useful.”
“The approach going from bigger to smaller” [starting from cable tying to demonstrate knot configuration before moving to suture tying, and finally trabeculectomy releasable suture tying]
Post-session instructor feedback themes
Emergent themes were teaching flexibility, visualisation, clarity of instruction, accessibility and personalised learning.